More than 10 million people in the UK get headaches, making them one of the most common health complaints, but most are easily treated.

Most headaches aren’t serious and can be treated with pharmacy remedies and lifestyle changes, such as getting more rest and drinking enough fluids.

Headaches have many different causes but can generally be split into two types:

primary headaches – those not due to another underlying health problem

secondary headaches – which have a separate cause, such as illness

These are described in more detail below, with links to more information on specific causes of headaches.

 Primary headaches 

 Tension headaches 

Tension headaches are the most common, and what we think of as normal everyday headaches.

They feel like a dull ache with constant pressure around the front, top and sides of the head as if a rubber band has been stretched around it.

Stress is one cause, but there are lots of others, including drinking too much alcohol, not getting enough sleep, depression, skipping meals and becoming dehydrated.


Migraines are less common. If a headache is recurrent and disabling to the point of stopping you from carrying on with daily life, it may be a migraine.

People describe migraines as a pounding or throbbing pain on one or both sides of the head.

Most people treat their migraines successfully with over-the-counter medication. If they’re severe, however, you may need stronger migraine-specific medication that is only available on prescription from a doctor.

 Cluster headaches 

Cluster headaches are a third type of primary headache. These excruciatingly painful headaches cause an intense pain around one eye. They're rare and are called cluster headaches because they happen in clusters for a month or two at a time around the same time of year.

Pharmacy medications don't ease the symptoms of a cluster headache, but a doctor can prescribe specific treatments to ease the pain.

 Secondary headaches 

These include headaches that come on after drinking too much alcohol or after a head injury or concussion.

You may also get a headache when you’ve had:

a cold


an allergic reaction


 Medication and painkiller headaches 

Some headaches are a side effect of taking a particular medication and frequent headaches can also be caused by taking too many painkillers.

 Hormone headaches 

Headaches in women are often caused by hormones, and many women notice a link with their periods. The Pill, the menopause and pregnancy are also potential triggers.

 Temporomandibular joint disorders 

Headaches are one of the symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders (TJDs). TJDs affect the joint between the lower jaw and the base of the skull.

It has been estimated that approximately 20-30% of the adult population will experience a TJD at some point.

Symptoms usually last for a few months before getting better.

Giant cell arteritis (temporal arteritis)

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a condition in which medium and large arteries, usually in the head and neck, become inflamed. It usually affects adults over 60 years old.

Giant cell arteritis should be regarded as a medical emergency and you should contact your GP immediately if you suddenly develop:

a severe headache

jaw pain when eating

blurred or double vision

a sore scalp

Carbon monoxide poisoning

A headache is the most common symptom of mild carbon monoxide poisoning. Other symptoms include feeling or being sick, dizziness and stomach pain.

Although carbon monoxide poisoning is unlikely to be the cause of most headaches, it's important to be aware of the warning signs, including:

other people in your house, flat or workplace falling ill with similar symptoms

your headache disappears when you're away from your home or workplace and returns when you come back

black, sooty marks on the front covers of gas fires or on the walls around boilers, stoves or fires

your pet also becoming ill