Antidepressants are a type of medication used to treat depression or prevent it recurring.

They can also be used to treat a number of other conditions, including:

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

generalised anxiety disorder (GAD)

post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Antidepressants are also sometimes used to treat people with long-term (chronic) pain.


How antidepressants work

It is thought antidepressants work by increasing levels of a group of chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. Certain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and noradrenaline, can improve mood and emotion, although this process is not fully understood.

Increasing levels of neurotransmitters can also disrupt pain signals sent by nerves, which may explain why some antidepressants can help relieve long-term pain.

While antidepressants can help treat the symptoms of depression, they do not always address its causes. This is why they are usually used in combination with therapy to treat more severe depression or other mental health conditions caused by emotional distress.

How effective are antidepressants?

Most people benefit from taking antidepressants to some degree, but research suggests that antidepressants may not be as effective as previously thought in cases of mild depression.

However, they are the most effective treatment in relieving symptoms quickly, particularly in cases of severe depression.

The Royal College of Psychiatrists estimates that 50-65% of people treated with an antidepressant for depression will see an improvement, compared to 25-30% of those taking inactive “dummy” pills (placebo). This means that most people do benefit from antidepressants, even if it is sometimes a result of the placebo effect.

Doses and duration of treatment

Antidepressants are usually taken in tablet form. When they are prescribed, you will start on the lowest possible dose thought necessary to improve your symptoms.

Antidepressants usually need to be taken for 2-4 weeks (without missing a dose) before the benefit is felt. It's important not to stop taking them because you get some mild side effects early on, as these effects will usually wear off quickly.

If you take an antidepressant for 4-6 weeks without feeling any benefit, speak to your GP or mental health specialist. They may recommend increasing your dose or trying an alternative medication.

A course of treatment usually lasts for six months, although a two-year course may be recommended for people with a previous history of depression and some people with recurrent depression may be advised to take them indefinitely.


Side effects

Different antidepressants can have a range of different side effects. Always check the information leaflet that comes with your medication to see what the possible side effects are. Common side effects of antidepressants in general are usually mild and can include:

feeling sick

dry mouth

slight blurring of vision




problems sleeping (insomnia)

sexual dysfunction, such as erectile dysfunction in men or difficulty achieving orgasm

Side effects should improve within a few days or weeks of treatment as the body gets used to the medication.


Different types of antidepressants

There are a number of different types of antidepressants. Some of the most widely used types are discussed below.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

SSRIs are the most widely prescribed type of antidepressants. They are usually preferred over other antidepressants as they cause fewer side effects. An overdose is also less likely to be serious.

Fluoxetine is probably the best known SSRI (sold under the brand name Prozac). Other SSRIs include citalopram (Cipramil),paroxetine (Seroxat) and sertraline (Lustral).

Serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)

SNRIs are similar to SSRIs. They were designed to be a more effective antidepressant than SSRIs. However, the evidence that SNRIs are more effective in treating depression is uncertain. It seems some people respond better to SSRIs while others respond better to SNRIs.

Examples of SNRIs include duloxetine (Cymbalta and Yentreve) and venlafaxine (Efexor).

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are an older type of antidepressant. They are no longer usually recommended as a first-line treatment for depression because they can be more dangerous if an overdose is taken. They also cause more unpleasant side effects than SSRIs and SNRIs.

Exceptions are sometimes made in people with severe depression that fails to respond to other treatments. TCAs may also be recommended for other mental health conditions such as obsessive compulsive disorder and bipolar disorder.

Examples of TCAs include amitriptyline (Tryptizol),clomipramine (Anafranil), imipramine (Tofranil), lofepramine (Gamanil) and nortriptyline (Allegron).

Some types of TCAs, such as amitriptyline, can also be used to treat chronic nerve pain.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are another older type of antidepressant with a wide range of side effects that are rarely used nowadays. They tend only to be used if other types of antidepressants are not effective and should only be taken under the supervision of a psychiatrist.

A significant drawback of MAOIs is the need to avoid certain foods and drinks, such as cheese and pickled fish, which contain a protein called tyramine. This is because consuming tyramine while taking MAOIs can cause a dangerous rise in blood pressure.

Examples of MAOIs include moclobemide (Manerix) and phenelzine (Nardil).

Alternatives to antidepressants

Alternative treatments for depression include talking therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).

Increasingly, people with moderate to severe depression are treated using a combination of antidepressants and CBT. Antidepressants work quickly in reducing symptoms, whereas CBT takes time to deal with causes of depression and ways of overcoming it.

Regular exercise has also been shown to be useful in those with mild depression.


When antidepressants are used 

The main use for antidepressants is treating depression. They are also used for other mental health conditions and treatment of long-term pain.

In most cases, people with moderate to severe depression are given antidepressants as a first form of treatment. They are often prescribed along with a talking therapy such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). CBT is a type of therapy that uses a problem-solving approach to help improve thought, mood and behaviour.

Antidepressants are not always recommended for treating mild depression because research has found limited effectiveness.

However, antidepressants are sometimes prescribed for a few months for mild depression to see if you experience any improvement in your symptoms. If you don’t see any benefits in this time, the medication will be slowly withdrawn.

Initially, a type of antidepressant called a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) will usually be prescribed. If your symptoms have not improved after about four weeks, an alternative antidepressant may be recommended or your dose may be increased.

Many antidepressants can be prescribed by your GP, but there are some types that can only be used under the supervision of a mental health professional. If the depression does not respond to simple antidepressant medication, specialists often use other treatments (such as CBT) along with the medication to help achieve better results. They may also give higher doses of the medication.

Other mental health conditions

Antidepressants can also be used to help treat other mental health conditions, including:

anxiety disorder

obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

panic disorder

serious phobias, such as agoraphobia and social phobia


post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

As with depression, SSRIs are usually the first choice of treatment for these conditions. If SSRIs prove ineffective, an alternative type of antidepressant can be used.

Long-term pain

Even though a type of antidepressant called tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were not originally designed to be painkillers, there is evidence to suggest they are effective in treating chronic (long-term) nerve pain in some people.

Chronic nerve pain, also known as neuropathic pain, is caused by nerve damage or other problems with the nerves, and is often unresponsive to traditional painkillers, such as paracetamol.

Amitriptyline is a TCA that is usually used to treat neuropathic pain. Conditions that may benefit from treatment with amitriptyline include:

complex regional pain syndrome

peripheral neuropathy

multiple sclerosis

conditions where a nerve becomes trapped, such as sciatica

Antidepressants have also been used to treat cases of chronic pain that do not involve nerves (non-neuropathic pain). However, they are thought to be less effective for this purpose. As well as TCAs, SSRIs and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) can also be used to treat chronic non-neuropathic pain.

Conditions that cause non-neuropathic pain which may benefit from treatment with antidepressants include fibromyalgia, chronic back painand chronic neck pain.

Bedwetting in children

TCAs are sometimes used to treat bedwetting in children as they can help relax the muscles of the bladder. This increases bladder capacity and reduces the urge to urinate.

Cautions and interactions 

There are several important things to consider when taking antidepressants. You should discuss these with your GP or mental health professional.

Interactions with other medications

Antidepressants can react unpredictably with other medications, including over-the-counter medications such as ibuprofen. Always carefully read the patient information leaflet that comes with your medication to see if there are any medications you should avoid.

If in doubt, your pharmacist or GP should be able to advise you.


As a precaution, antidepressants are not usually recommended for most pregnant women, especially during the early stages of a pregnancy. However, exceptions can be made if the risks posed by depression (or other mental health conditions) outweigh any potential risks of treatment.

Potential complications that have been linked to antidepressant use during pregnancy include:

loss of the pregnancy

birth defects affecting the baby’s heart (congenital heart disease)

a rare condition in newborns called pulmonary hypertension, where the blood pressure inside the lungs is abnormally high, causing breathing difficulties

However, there is no hard evidence that antidepressants cause these complications.

If you are pregnant and depressed you should discuss the pros and cons of treatment with antidepressants with the doctor in charge of your care.

If antidepressants are recommended they will usually be a type called a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), such as fluoxetine.


As a precaution, the use of antidepressants if you are breastfeeding is not usually recommended.

But there are circumstances when both the benefits of treatment for depression (or other mental health conditions) and the benefits of breastfeeding your baby outweigh the potential risks.

If you are treated with antidepressants when breastfeeding, then paroxetine or sertraline is normally recommended.

Children and young people

The use of antidepressants is not usually recommended in children and young people under the age of 18. This is because there is evidence that they can trigger thoughts about suicide and acts of self-harm in this age group.

Concerns have also been raised that their use could affect the development of the brain in children and young people.

An exception can usually only be made if the following points are met:

the person being treated has failed to respond to talking therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy, and

the person being treated will continue to receive talking therapies in combination with antidepressants, and

the treatment is supervised by a psychiatrist (a doctor who specialises in treating mental health conditions)

If an antidepressant is recommended, then fluoxetine is usually the first choice.


You should be wary of drinking alcohol if you are taking antidepressants as alcohol is itself an depressant and drinking alcohol can make your symptoms worse.

If you drink alcohol while taking types of antidepressants called tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) or monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), you may become drowsy and dizzy. Many alcoholic drinks also contain the protein tyramine (see below), which can cause a dangerous rise in blood pressure if you are taking an MAOI.

You are less likely to experience unpleasant or unpredictable effects if you drink alcohol while taking a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or a serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) antidepressant, but avoiding alcohol is often still recommended in these cases.

Illegal drugs

The use of illegal drugs is not recommended if you are taking antidepressants, particularly if you have been prescribed an MAOI or a TCA. This is because they can cause unpredictable and unpleasant effects.

In particular, you should avoid taking:

cannabis – smoking cannabis while taking a TCA can make you feel very ill

amphetamines (speed)




As with alcohol, illegal drugs can make symptoms of depression or other mental health conditions worse.

Other antidepressants

You should never take two different types of antidepressants, such as a TCA and an MAOI, unless advised by the doctor in charge of your care. This is because taking certain combinations of antidepressants can make you feel very ill and can be life-threatening.

If a decision is taken to switch you from one type to another, the dosage of the first antidepressant will usually be gradually reduced before the second is administered.

St John’s Wort

St John’s Wort is a popular herbal remedy promoted for the treatment of depression.

While there is evidence of its effectiveness many experts advise against its use because the amount of active ingredient varies among individual brands and batches, making the effects unpredictable.

Taking St John's Wort with other medications, such as anticonvulsants,anticoagulants, antidepressants and the contraceptive pill, can also cause serious health problems.

You shouldn't take St John's Wort if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, as it is unclear whether it is safe.

Driving and operating machinery

Some antidepressants can cause dizziness, drowsiness and blurred vision, particularly when you first start taking them.

If you do experience these problems, you should avoid driving or using tools and machinery.

Cautions for specific antidepressants


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may not be suitable for you if you have:

bipolar disorder  (alternating bouts of depression and mania) and you are in a manic phase (a period of extremely excitable mood), although they can be useful for depressive phases

a bleeding disorder, or if you are taking medicines that make it more likely that you may bleed (for example, warfarin)

type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes

epilepsy – SSRIs should only be taken if your epilepsy is well controlled, and the medication should be stopped if your epilepsy gets worse

kidney disease



Serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may not be suitable for you if you have a history of heart disease or you have poorly controlled high blood pressure.


Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) may not be suitable for you if you have:

a history of heart disease

recently had a heart attack

liver disease

an inherited blood disorder called porphyria

bipolar disorder


a growth on your adrenal glands that is causing high blood pressure (pheochromocytoma)

an enlarged prostate gland

narrow angle glaucoma – increased pressure in the eye




Although they are not commonly prescribed nowadays, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) may not be suitable for you if you have:

a history of heart disease

liver disease

bipolar disorder

an overactive thyroid gland

had a stroke, or another condition that affects the blood supply to the brain

Another important consideration when taking MAOIs is the need to avoid any food or drink containing a type of protein called tyramine. This is because an MAOI can disrupt the body’s ability to break down tyramine and high levels of tyramine can cause a sudden and dangerous rise in blood pressure.

Examples of food containing tyramine include cheese, yeast extract (such as Marmite) and some salted or pickled meats. Ask for a detailed list of foods and drinks to avoid when you are first prescribed your medication.

MAOIs can also react unpredictably to some anaesthetics and sedatives, so you may be advised to stop taking your medication two weeks before having surgery or major dental treatment that requires sedation.


About your antidepressant dose 

When prescribing antidepressants your GP will usually select the lowest possible dose thought necessary to improve your symptoms.

This approach is intended to reduce the risk of side effects. If this dose proves ineffective, it can be gradually increased.

Antidepressants are usually taken in tablet form. Depending on the type of antidepressant prescribed and the severity of your depression, you will usually have to take one to three tablets a day.

It usually takes between two and four weeks before you begin to notice the effects of antidepressants. Contact your doctor if you haven't noticed any improvement after 4-6 weeks, as they may recommend increasing your dose or trying an alternative antidepressant.

It is usually recommended that a course of antidepressants lasts at least six months to prevent your condition recurring when you stop. However, if you have experienced previous episodes of depression, a two-year course may be recommended and some people with recurrent illness are advised to carry on taking medication indefinitely.

The recommended course of treatment depends largely on the benefits experienced balanced against the side effects of the medication. If your illness is severe and the medication is effective, treatment will often be continued. If your illness is mild and the medication doesn’t help and causes side effects, then continued treatment will not be recommended.

Missed or extra doses

It's important to try not to miss any of your doses as this could make your treatment less effective.

If you do miss one of your doses, take it as soon as you remember unless it is almost time to take your next dose, in which case you should just skip the missed dose. Don't take a double dose in order to ‘make up’ for the one you missed.

If you take more tablets than prescribed, contact your GP as soon as possible for advice. If this is not possible, contact your local out of hours service, or call 111. Taking a double dose is unlikely to be harmful, but you should only do it if advised by a medical professional.

Stopping antidepressants

You should not suddenly stop taking antidepressants, even if you feel better. Stopping suddenly can lead to withdrawal symptoms such as:

stomach upsets

flu-like symptoms



sensations in the body that feel like electric shocks

seizures (fits)

Stopping antidepressants too soon can cause your condition to recur and stopping before 3-4 weeks may mean the medication has not yet had a chance to take effect.

If your GP or mental health specialist decides to stop your course of antidepressants, they will reduce the dose gradually over a few weeks.

Side effects of antidepressants 

The side effects of antidepressants can cause problems at first but then generally improve with time.

It is important to persist with treatment, even if you are affected by side effects, as it will take several weeks before you begin to benefit from treatment. With time you should find the benefits of treatment outweigh any problems from side effects.

During the first few months of treatment, you will usually see your doctor or a specialist nurse at least once every 2-4 weeks to see how well the medication is working.

Some of the more common side effects of the main types of antidepressants are outlined below. For more information about side effects of your specific medication, see the patient information leaflet that comes with it or look up your medicine in the Medicines A-Z.


Common side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) can include:

feeling agitated, shaky or anxious

feeling and being sick

indigestion and stomach aches

diarrhoea or constipation

loss of appetite


not sleeping well (insomnia), or feeling very sleepy


low sex drive

difficulties achieving orgasm during sex or masturbation

in men, difficulties obtaining or maintaining an erection (erectile dysfunction)

These side effects should improve within a few weeks, although some can occasionally persist.

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)

Common side effects of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) can include:

dry mouth

slight blurring of vision


problems passing urine



weight gain

excessive sweating (especially at night)

heart rhythm problems, such as noticeable palpitations or a fast heartbeat (tachycardia)

The side effects should ease after a couple of weeks as your body begins to get used to the medication.


Common side effects of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) can include:



dry mouth

dizziness (particularly after sudden movements, such as standing up quickly)

feeling sick

tiredness and difficulty sleeping

In rare cases, MAOIs have the potential to cause a wide range of other side effects. You should check with your GP or mental health specialist if you are concerned about any unusual symptoms that you have.

There have been cases where MAOIs have caused a dangerous rise in blood pressure. This can cause symptoms such as:

a stiff neck

severe headache

chest pains

feeling or being sick

an abnormally fast heartbeat

If you experience the combination of symptoms listed above, seek emergency medical help immediately by dialling 999 to ask for an ambulance.

Potential health risks

Serotonin syndrome

Serotonin syndrome is an uncommon, but potentially serious, set of side effects linked to SSRIs and SNRIs.

Serotonin syndrome occurs when the levels of a chemical called serotonin in your brain become too high. It is usually triggered when you take an SSRI or SNRI in combination with another medication (or substance) that also raises serotonin levels, such as another antidepressant or St John’s Wort.

Symptoms of serotonin syndrome can include:



muscle twitching




If you experience the symptoms listed above, you should stop taking the medication and seek immediate advice from your GP or specialist. If this is not possible, call 111.

Symptoms of severe serotonin syndrome include:

a very high temperature (fever)

seizures (fits)

irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)


If you experience symptoms of severe serotonin syndrome, seek emergency medical help immediately by dialling 999 to ask for an ambulance.


Elderly people who take antidepressants, particularly those who take SSRIs, may experience a severe fall in sodium (salt) levels known as hyponatraemia. This may lead to a build-up of fluid inside the cells of the body, which can be potentially dangerous.

This side effect can occur as SSRIs can block the effects of a hormone that helps regulate levels of sodium and fluid in the body. Elderly people are vulnerable because fluid levels become more difficult for the body to regulate.

Mild hyponatraemia can cause symptoms similar to depression or side effects of antidepressants, such as:

feeling sick


muscle pain

reduced appetite


More severe hyponatraemia can cause the following symptoms:

feeling listless and tired



psychosis (being unable to tell the difference between reality and your imagination)

seizures (fits)

The most serious cases of hyponatraemia can cause you to stop breathing or enter a coma.

If you suspect that you, or someone in your care, has mild hyponatraemia you should call your GP for advice and stop taking SSRIs for the time-being.

If you suspect severe hyponatraemia, call 999 and ask for an ambulance.

Hyponatraemia can be treated by feeding a sodium solution into the body through an intravenous drip.


Long-term use of SSRIs and TCAs has been linked to an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, although it's not clear if the use of these antidepressants causes diabetes to develop directly.

It may be that the weight gain some people using antidepressants experience increases the risk of them developing type 2 diabetes.

Suicidal thoughts

Some people experience suicidal thoughts and a desire to self-harm when they first take antidepressants. Young people under 25 seem particularly at risk.

Contact your GP, or go to hospital immediately, if you have thoughts of killing or harming yourself at any time while you are taking antidepressants.

It may be useful to tell a relative or close friend you have started taking antidepressants and ask them to read the leaflet that comes with your medication. You should then ask them to tell you if they think your symptoms are getting worse, or if they are worried about changes in your behaviour. 

Alternatives to antidepressants 

There are several treatments that can be used as alternatives to antidepressants for treating depression and other mental health conditions. 

Talking therapies

Cognitive behavioural therapy

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a type of talking therapy that is increasingly being used in the treatment of depression. Most experts recommend that people with moderate to severe depression are treated with a combination of CBT and antidepressants.

But if you are unable or unwilling to take antidepressants then you have the option of receiving CBT as a sole treatment.

CBT helps you understand your thoughts and behaviour and how they affect you. It helps you recognise that events in your past may have shaped you, but it concentrates mostly on how you can change the way you think, feel and behave in the present. It also teaches you how to overcome negative thoughts.

CBT is usually available


although the waiting lists are usually long. You normally have a short course of sessions, usually six to eight sessions, over 10-12 weeks on a one-to-one basis with a therapist trained in CBT. In some cases, you may be offered group CBT.

Online CBT

Computerised CBT is a form of CBT that works through a computer screen, rather than face-to-face with a therapist.

These therapies can be prescribed by your GP or a mental health specialist and are carried out with their advice and support.

Interpersonal therapy (IPT)

Interpersonal therapy (IPT) focuses on your relationships with other people and on problems you may be having in your relationships, such as difficulties with communication or coping with bereavement.

A course of IPT is usually structured in the same way as a course of CBT.

There's some evidence that IPT can be as effective as antidepressants or CBT, but more research is needed.


Counselling is a form of therapy that helps you think about the problems you are experiencing in your life to find new ways of dealing with them. Counsellors support you in finding solutions to problems, but do not tell you what to do.

Counselling on the usually consists of 6-12 sessions lasting an hour each. You talk in confidence to a counsellor. The counsellor supports you and offers practical advice.

Counselling is ideal for people who are healthy but need help coping with a current crisis, such as anger, relationship issues, bereavement, redundancy, infertility or the onset of a serious illness.


Research suggests that regular exercise may be a more effective treatment for mild depression than antidepressants.

Exercise helps boost levels of chemicals called serotonin and dopamine in the brain, which can lift your mood.

Exercising on a regular basis can boost self-esteem and confidence which can also help relieve symptoms of depression.

Your GP may refer you to a qualified fitness trainer for an exercise scheme or you can read about starting exercise.

Self-help groups

Talking through your feelings can be helpful. You can either talk to a friend or relative, or you can ask your GP to suggest a local self-help group. There are also a number of chat rooms on the internet that offer support.


If you've tried several different antidepressants and had no improvement, your doctor may offer you a type of medication called lithium, in addition to your current treatment.

There are two types of lithium – lithium carbonate and lithium citrate. Both are usually effective, but if you are taking one that works for you, it's best not to change.

If the level of lithium in your blood becomes too high, it can become toxic. So, you'll need blood tests every three months to check your lithium levels while you're taking it.

You'll also need to avoid eating a low-salt diet because this can also cause the lithium to become toxic. Ask your GP for advice about your diet.

Side effects of lithium include:

dry mouth

a metallic taste in your mouth

some mild shaking of your hands


These side effects usually pass with time once your body gets used to the medication.

Electric shock treatment

Sometimes a treatment called electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be recommended if you have severe depression and other treatments haven't worked as it can be highly effective.

During ECT, you'll first be given an anaesthetic and medication to relax your muscles. Then you'll receive an electric current to your brain through electrodes placed on your head.

You may be given a series of ECT sessions. It is usually given twice a week for 3-6 weeks.

It's not exactly clear how ECT works, but recent studies suggest it may help reduce connections in an area of the brain linked to depression.

For most people, ECT is good for relieving severe depression, but the beneficial effect tends to wear off after several months. Some people get unpleasant side effects, including short-term headaches, memory problems, nausea and muscle aches. However, these risks need to be balanced against the risks of other treatments and the effects of not treating depression.